Aims: Identify the relationship between experiences of discrimination or violence and health outcomes for transgender and nonbinary Black, Indigenous and People of Colour (BIPOC) compared to their white trans and nonbinary peers.
Design: A national online survey, the 2019 Canadian Trans and Nonbinary Youth Health Survey, was conducted among youth ages 14-25, in English and French.
Methods: Participants were recruited from November 2018 to May 2019 (N = 1519). BIPOC youth comprised 25.7% of the sample (n = 390). Questions about six types of discrimination (e.g. racism and sexism) and violence (physically threatened or injured), plus foregone health care, self-harm and suicidality were drawn from existing validated measures. Analyses involved cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and logistic regressions.
Results: Trans and non-binary BIPOC reported significantly higher prevalence of suicide attempts (24.9% vs. 19.5%) and violence victimization compared to white youth. They had significantly higher odds of self-harm and foregone health care when experiencing discrimination by ethnicity or culture. All types of violence were significantly associated with higher odds of foregone physical health care, self-harm, suicide ideation and suicide attempt.
Conclusion: In Canada, trans and nonbinary youth who are BIPOC face disparities in health outcomes and experiences of violence and discrimination compared to white trans and nonbinary youth.
Impact: Nurses should assess for violence exposure and discrimination among trans and/or nonbinary youth of colour, and promote health equity by advocating for policies to reduce violence and discrimination, including racism, for trans and nonbinary young people.
Chan, A., Pullen-Sansfaçon, A., & Saewyc, E. (2022). Experiences of discrimination or violence and health outcomes among Black, Indigenous and People of Colour trans and/or nonbinary youth. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15534.