Saewyc E.M. (2007). Chapter 2. Substance abuse among non-mainstream youth. In Substance Abuse in Canada: Youth In Focus. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.

While most adolescents do not have substance abuse problems, certain groups of youth are more likely than their peers to report heavy use, multi-drug use, social and economic problems due to use, and substance abuse or dependence disorders. Emerging research exploring the reasons for this higher risk suggests that some teens may be self-medicating to cope with toxic environments, untreated trauma, and underlying psychological conditions. Current population approaches for preventing adolescent drug use may not address the key issues for groups at highest risk, but may only reach the majority who are not likely to experience substantial harms from drug use.

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